Age of the Earth, Medical Science, Adam, Eve, Eden, and the Flood © Joseph Mastropaolo 2004 One of the claims made by evolutionists is that the early Earth was molten with exploding volcanoes and many meteors in a sky dominated by a giant sun. The implication is that this imagined chaos somehow inverted the laws of physics so that a living cell spontaneously generated itself then diversified to every life form that ever lived. There is no evidence that the early sun looked gigantic or that the Earth was molten or chaotic or that the laws of physics were ever any different than they are today. Like today, the early Earth could never have spawned evolution. Age of the Earth Evolutionists of the 19th century claimed that the Earth was millions of years old. Their estimates from nature, solar thermodynamics and ocean salinity ranged from 75,032 to 100,000,000 years old or 53,015,006 ± 45,199,699 years old (mean ± standard deviation). The evolutionists of the 20th century claimed that the Earth was billions of years old. Their estimates ranged from 200,000,000 to 5 billion years old or 2.61 ± 1.79 billion. Curiously according to the evolutionists, in one century, the Earth aged 2.56 billion years. It seemed strange that in 1921, according to them, the Earth was 1.5 billion years old and in 1991 it was 4.5 billion years old. In those 70 years, according to the evolutionists, the Earth and I as well, aged 3 billion years. According to the evolutionists, I am a 3 billion-year-old ambulating fossil. A simple example will show how science eliminates such unreliable determinations. Suppose the scores for measuring the height of a child in centimeters (cm) by method A are 100, 99, 101, 98 and 102. The mean is 100 and the standard deviation (SD), a measure of variability, is 1.6. Now, suppose by method B the scores are 10, 190, 1, 199 and 100. The mean is 100 but the SD is 95. Suppose by method C the scores are 0,0,0,0,500. The mean is 100 but the SD is 224. Obviously, A is the most reliable and C the least reliable. But if we consider only the mean, they seem the same. One way to expose the reliability of each method is to describe a range two SD above the mean and two SD below the mean. That range will contain the true value with a 95% certainty. For method A the range would be 97 to 103, for B – 89 to 289 and for C – 124 to 324. Should we reject any of these methods? Obviously, the child cannot be a negative height so we can eliminate methods B and C. That leaves only method A with a 95% probability that the true height of the child is between 97 and 103 with the best estimate, the mean, at 100 cm. The same test can be applied to the estimates for the age of the Earth. Obviously, the Earth has been born and any method so unreliable as to put the 95% range into the future ought to be rejected, just as we rejected a negative height for the child. That test rejected the estimates of the 19th century (37 million years into the future) and the 20th century (971 million years into the future). Scientists therefore admit that there is no objective, valid, reliable, calibrated retrospective clock to estimate the age of the Earth. Prior to the 19th century, secondary historical records were employed to estimate the age of the Earth. These gave an age of about 6,800 ± 870 years old with a 95% range of about 5,000 to 8,500 years old. There does not seem to be anything in history to cast doubt on this range of dates. For scientists, this provides a reasonable alternative. While we are at it, we may as well consult these secondary historical sources for the date of the worldwide flood. That date is approximately Age of the Earth, Medical Science, Adam, Eve, Eden, and the Flood ©Joseph Mastropaolo 2004 1 1,650 years after creation. From that time, these historical sources also report that human longevity declined about 90% in a curvilinear fashion. That in turn suggests that the beginning of the curvilinear rise in genetic disorders, as documented from the scientific medical data, began after the worldwide flood with most of the genetic damage occurring in the first three centuries (see Figure 1). The Topsy-Turvy Evolutionist Reasons for an Old Earth Evolutionists would like to say the Earth is old to provide ample time for evolution to work. We know this is topsy-turvy reasoning because time universally yields devolution, the exact opposite of evolution. The older the Earth is the greater would be the ravages of time and the greater the certainty that every life form would have devolved to extinction. Everyone observes that life is mortal but the topsy-turvy evolutionists want us to believe that life can go on for millions or billions of years with no end in sight. In spite of trillions of observations by billions of people for thousands of years that life forms devolve, die and go extinct, they want us to believe that life is immortal and will evolve forever. Never seen, evolution is the universe’s topsy-turvy phantom. Genetic Variations Another claim is that evolution’s primary mechanism is genetic variations such as mutations. Genetic variations may yield Shetland horses of 300 pounds or Belgian horses of 2,300 pounds but never a horse that evolved to a cow or anything else. Genetic variations never lead to another life form. Trillions of observations by billions of people over thousands of years attest that life forms are fixed. They must be fixed or the entire elegantly balanced interdependent biosphere would be thrown into chaos and mass extinction. Mutations Another claim is that natural selection will evolve any life form to superior survivability by means of the biological advantages garnered from mutations. The sickle cell allele is the favorite example in current biology textbooks. For example, “The sickle cell allele confers an unexpected advantage in Africa,” and “Why is sickle cell anemia so common in some regions . . . The answer to that question is a surprising lesson in evolution . . . That mutation conferred an advantage wherever malaria was common, and thus it was favored by natural selection.” As usual, the student is expected to memorize that lesson without any supporting evidence, without a single peer reviewed study from any science journal. However, the evidence indicates the exact opposite of what is taught in the biology textbooks. The sickle cell mutation is the exact opposite of a biological advantage. The sickle cell mutation maims organs, it gives infants fatal anemia, it is a lethal genetic disorder, it is a killer. Again, we find that the evolution lessons in biology textbooks are the exact opposite of the truth. Let us explore beyond the lethal sickle cell mutation to see whether the other mutations are biologically advantageous, or contrarily morbid and lethal. Human Mutations Currently, more than 15,400 human mutations have been described and reported in the medical literature. Some of these include Alzheimer disease, muscular dystrophy, and more than a dozen types of cancer including several kinds of leukemia. Obviously, these cause significant morbidity and mortality. We also find cataracts, color blindness, cretinism, cystic fibrosis, Down Age of the Earth, Medical Science, Adam, Eve, Eden, and the Flood ©Joseph Mastropaolo 2004 2 syndrome, dyslexia, and emphysema. These conditions also are the opposite of what any sane person would call a biological advantage. These thousands also include hemophilia, familial hypercholesterolemia, hypothyroidism, Lou Gehrig disease, multiple sclerosis, pituitary dwarfism, rheumatoid arthritis, Tay Sachs disease, thalassemia, sickle cell disease, deafness, blindness, ventricular hypertrophy, microcephalus, and anencephalus. They are debilitating. They are life threatening. They are lethal. Not one biological advantage can be found. The box score is more than 15,400 medically described mutations cause debilitation, morbidity or death and zero yield a biological advantage. From the medical literature, the evidence suggesting evolution is zero and the evidence suggesting the exact opposite, devolution, is more than 15,400. Obviously, evolution is the exact opposite of reality. New Human Mutations Human mutations have been cataloged since 1966 under the medical term, genetic disorders. The catalogs, Mendelian Inheritance In Man, in the 1960’s gathered what was known from the periodical and monograph literature. Subsequent catalogs reported new genetic disorders as they appeared in the medical journals. The process required continual revisions and these were reported with the newly emerging disorders. For example, for January 2002 the report was “83 New Entries, 680 Changed.” The New Entries are the new genetic disorders and the Changed are the revisions. The analyses in this report were made on the New Entries, the new genetic disorders, the new human mutations. If evolution is true, then we should observe a decrease in human mutations, medically designated human genetic disorders, over time according to one definition of evolution, change over time, and another definition, natural selection. According to the evolution concept, genetic disorders would be biological disadvantages and would be eliminated by natural selection. Those without the genetic disorders would have biological advantages and more offspring compared to those with the biological disadvantages. Over time, those with the genetic disorders would die out and the fittest, those without the genetic disorders, would displace them. That means that the graph of human genetic disorders over time would decline. As can be seen in Figure 1, the trend in medically reported new genetic disorders is an increase in a curvilinear accelerating pattern. The actual data show that genetic disorders doubled every 13 years through the sixties, seventies and eighties. In the nineties, genetic disorders doubled in about half the time, every seven years. That is a remarkable acceleration in the appearance of new genetic disorders. Beyond any doubt, the trend is devolution and extinction, the exact opposite of the evolutionist claim that the dominant life form will perfect itself forever like a biological perpetual motion machine. Time ravages everything including everything alive. Nothing in the entire biosphere is immortal. Again, evolution is a hallucination the exact opposite of reality. Scientific Retrospection Let us extrapolate to the past and see what medical science specifies. Going backward in time we find the Earth’s human population ever diminishing until we arrive at an original couple. The medical evidence also reveals fewer and fewer genetic disorders until we find that the original couple, Adam and Eve, are genetically perfect. For every other complex life form we find their genetically perfect Adam and Eve in what would be a genetically perfect garden, Eden, with pristine Age of the Earth, Medical Science, Adam, Eve, Eden, and the Flood ©Joseph Mastropaolo 2004 3 air and water and soil, where longevity for humans is normally 900 years. We also have unimpeachable medical evidence that suggests the correlation of the curvilinear decline in post-flood longevity, from Noah to David, with the curvilinear incline of new genetic disorders. The data suggest that genetic disorders began to increase after the flood and that probably was associated with the diminished longevity to 70 years by the time of David. This suggestion is shown by the dashed line in Figure 1. Uncensored medical science confirms the Bible and destroys the lethal, psychotic, inverted-fantasy antiscience of evolution. Figure 1. The correlation of the curvilinear decline in post-flood longevity with the curvilinear incline of medically reported new genetic disorders supports Genesis and refutes evolution. Wherever these data have been presented, the reactions of evolutionists have ranged from the commission of civil torts and threats of death by stoning to merely demented with rage. Although all are inexcusable for even those disguised as scientists, it is understandable because this unimpeachable medical evidence completely destroys the evolution concept while simultaneously supporting Genesis. Were I a devout evolutionist, I too might be demented with rage against the medical evidence exposing the 2,500–year–old antiscience vitalism superstition called, evolution. Conclusion A young Earth, Adam, Eve, Eden, the Flood, and an exclusively and continuously devolving biosphere are scientifically tenable whereas the universe’s topsy-turvy phantom, evolution, is scientifically untenable. Reference Mastropaolo, Joseph A. The rise and fall of evolution, a scientific examination. 2003. pp. 49-62, 79- 86. Age of the Earth, Medical Science, Adam, Eve, Eden, and the Flood ©Joseph Mastropaolo 2004