Biomedical Engineering
Applications Conference

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Components, Sensors and Systems
in Medical Applications

The impediments to medical device design often are created by the electrical and/or mechanical limitations of the device's fundamental components. This special session assesses the status and needs of component through system-level designs in selected medical applications.

Tuesday, September 19, 2000. Anaheim Convention Center, Anaheim, California

9:00 am - 5:00 pm, Room 213A

THE SPEAKERS AND CONTRIBUTORS INCLUDE:

Randall Blair, Staff Scientist, Trimedyne, Inc.,Irvine, CA; Dr. Christopher Druzgalski, CSULB, Long Beach, CA; Dr. Piotr Grodzinski, Manager, Microfluidics Laboratory, PSRL, Motorola Labs, Tempe, Arizona; Greg Hart, Honeywell Sensing and Control, Richardson, Texas.; Dr. Andrew Huszcza, Vacumed, Ventura, CA; Davis J. Olney, Marketing Manager, High Volume Sensors, Endevco, San Juan Capistrano, CA; Gene Patschke, Honeywell Sensing and Control, Richardson, Texas.; Dr. David J. Reinkensmeyer, University of California, Irvine, CA; Robert Schmidt, President, Cleveland Medical Devices, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio; Scott T. Smith, Manager, Elo TouchSystems, Inc., Knoxville, TN.; Dr. Joseph H. Schulman, Vice President, Alfred E. Mann Foundation, Valencia, CA ; Dr. Morton Schwartz, CSULB, Long Beach, CA; Frank Shen, Manager, Elo TouchSystems, Inc., Fremont, CA; Gabriel Spera, Editor, Medical Device Link, Los Angeles, CA.; Dr. Jim Tatum, Honeywell Sensing and Control, Richardson, Texas.; Robert Wagenleitner, Medical Data Electronics, Arleta, CA; Bob Ward, CSULB, Long Beach, CA.

Chairperson: Dr. Christopher Druzgalski, Professor, Electrical Engineering Department, California State University, Long Beach, CA

The impediments of medical device design often are created by electrical and/or mechanical limitations of the device’s fundamental components. For instance, since capacitors and batteries set the limits of implantable defibrillators, one-third of the pacemakers are replaced due to limits set by the batteries. Mechanical and electrical components, as well as power requirements, create limitations to the left ventricular assist system. A biosensor’s capabilities define the spectrum and modalities of detected or continuously monitored physiological parameters. A hearing aid device’s performance often is defined by DSP circuitry and magnet strength, allowing physical coupling between internal and external parts of the unit. The component-level technological developments of electronic circuits and systems often determine things such as the transition from a non-invasive to invasive procedure, the capabilities of multipurpose catheters and probes, and the functionality of nerve and spinal cord bridges. This special session assesses the status and needs of component through system-level designs in selected medical applications.

The session is presented by IEEE/EMB LAC (IEEE/Engineering in Medicine and Biology, Los Angeles Council)

This Applications Conference, which is a part of Wescon 2000 Special Events, is divided into two sessions:

 

SESSION (AM)

Components, Sensors, and Systems in Medical Applications with focus on: Wireless Systems, Microfluidic Devices, VCSEL Technology, Accelerometers and Pressure Transducers, Mechatronic Technology, and Medical Lasers.

9:00-9:25 Miniature Wireless Programmable Medical Data Acquisition System (Crystal monitors), Robert Schmidt, President, Cleveland Medical Devices, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio.

9:25-9:50 Development of Plastic Microfluidic Devices for Genetic Sample Preparation, Piotr Grodzinski, Ph.D., Manager, Microfluidics Laboratory, PSRL, Motorola Labs, Tempe, Arizona.

9:50-10:15 Honeywell's VCSEL Technology for Medical Applications, Gene Patschke, Jim Tatum,Ph.D., and Greg Hart, Honeywell Sensing and Control, Richardson, Texas.

10:15-10:40 The Role of Accelerometers and Pressure Transducers in Biomedical Applications, Davis J. Olney, Marketing Manager, High Volume Sensors, Endevco, San Juan Capistrano, CA.

10:40-11:05 Development of Low-Cost, Web-Based, Mechatronic Technology for Neurological Rehabilitation, David J.Reinkensmeyer, Ph.D.,University of California, Irvine, CA.

11:05-11:30 Design and Components Issues in Medical Lasers, Randall Blair, Staff Scientist, Trimedyne Inc., Irvine, CA.

11:30-12:00                        Informal discussions and networking

12:00-1:30       Break

SESSION (PM)

Components, Sensors, and Systems in Medical Applications with focus on: Injectable Microstimulators/Sensors, Touchscreen Technology, Metabolic Mass Flow Sensing, and Internet Appliances.

1:30-1:55 Injectable Microstimulators/Sensors to Restore Paralyzed Functions, Joseph H. Schulman, Ph.D. Vice President, Alfred E. Mann Foundation, Valencia, CA.

1:55-2:20 The Correct Touchscreen Technology for Medical Applications, Frank Shen, Market Manager, Elo TouchSystems, Inc., Fremont, CA.

2:20-2:45 Elements of Metabolic Mass Flow Sensing, Andrew Huszcza, Ph.D., Vacumed, Ventura, CA.

2:45-3:10 Internet Appliances for Medical Applications, Bob Ward and Morton Schwartz, Ph.D., CSULB, Long Beach, CA.

3:10-3:35 Selected On-Line Resources for Electro-Medical Device, Gabriel Spera, Editor, Medical Device Link, Los Angeles, CA.

3:35-3:50 An Overview of the Patient Vital Signs Monitor Robert Wagenleitner, Medical Data Electronics, Arleta, CA

3:50-        Summary - Components, Sensors, and Systems in Medical Applications,               Christopher Druzgalski, Ph.D., CSULB, Long Beach, CA

                          Informal discussions and networking       - 4:15

                                                  (Please  see abstracts of these presentations)

ABSTRACTS

SESSION (AM)

Miniature Wireless Programmable Medical Data Acquisition System (Crystal monitors)

Robert Schmidt, President, Cleveland Medical Devices, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio.

Medical monitors typically require the patient to be tethered to large equipment by the bedside. Cardiac telemetry monitors in step-down units allow ambulatory heart patients to be monitored while walking around the ward. However, the noise levels of the analog front-ends of the current cardiac telemetry units are too high to measure the one microvolt signals required for neurological (EEG, brainwave) monitoring. A new miniature, lightweight (3.8 oz, 110 gr.), 8-channel, digital, FSK, radio telemetry monitor has been developed to serve multiple medical applications. A series of "Crystal Monitors™" are starting to be used for applications ranging from the ambulance, emergency room, operating room, intensive care unit, step-down unit, rehabilitation facility, all the way to the patient’s home. The cost can be kept low by utilizing PC technology for the data recording and analysis. A radio specifically designed to use low cost, off-the-shelf parts allows for high data rates while providing the flexibility of a microcellular system. New generations of the device operate in either the 916 or 2400 MHz. ISM bands, or in the new 611 MHz medical band. An even smaller quarter size, data acquisition device will soon be available, and will have numerous embedded industrial applications.

 

Development of Plastic Microfluidic Devices for Genetic Sample Preparation

Piotr Grodzinski, Ph.D., Manager, Microfluidics Laboratory, PSRL, Motorola Labs, Tempe, Arizona.

Microfluidics technology shows excellent potential for applications in biotechnology, chemical sensing, and drug delivery. The use of microfluidics results in the cycle time reduction, reagent cost and labor intensity savings due to the benefits of miniaturization and functional integration. In this presentation, we will discuss design, fabrication, and testing of plastic microfluidic devices for on-chip genetic sample preparation. We will describe components enabling on-chip performance of cell lysing, DNA amplification through PCR, and on-chip hybridization. We will also show the techniques leading to fluid motion and bead manipulation as well as approaches to device integration.

 

Honeywell's VCSEL Technology for Medical Applications

Gene Patschke, Jim Tatum, and Greg Hart, Honeywell Sensing and Control, Richardson, TX 75081

Over the past four years, Honeywell's VCSEL technology has emerged from the research laboratory and Honeywell has become the world leader in production of VCSEL components for applications such as gigabit-speed data communication transceivers and parallel array links. New applications in both the data communication and the sensor marketplaces are being enabled by VCSEL technology. This presentation will focus on the aspects of VCSEL components that make them an ideal light source for applications in the field of medicine, potentially displacing LEDs and other semiconductor lasers. Some applications include blood chemistry and tissue sensing, gas sensors, and photodynamic therapy. This presentation will also discuss new VCSEL structures, packages and wavelengths that are being commercialized by Honeywell, and how they relate to these applications.

 

The Role of Accelerometers and Pressure Transducers in Biomedical Applications

Davis J. Olney, Marketing Manager, High Volume Sensors, Endevco, San Juan Capistrano, CA

Sensors such as accelerometers and pressure transducers are playing an increasingly important role in biomedical applications, aiding in research ranging from studies on the effects of impact on the skeletal body, to embedded sensors in invasive or implantable devices intended to monitor critical physiological functions. Biomedical applications represent significant technical challenges to sensor manufacturers, due to the critical nature of most measurements being made and the increasing emphasis on small size and high performance. Provided herein is an overview of a number of applications that have relied on piezoelectric and silicon sensor technologies to advance product capabilities, addressing some of the key design and performance requirements.

 

Development of Low-Cost, Web-Based, Mechatronic Technology for Neurological Rehabilitation

David J. Reinkensmeyer, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine.

Through movement therapy using mechatronic/robotic devices, survivors of strokes or other brain injuries can gradually recover movement ability. The advent of dynamic force feedback technology for the PC, coupled with the networking power of the Internet, provides an opportunity to make such robotic therapy widely accessible. A system is described that provides access to force feedback-based games designed to test and improve motor coordination in the arm and hand. By utilizing ActiveX software technology, a force feedback joystick provides assistive or resistive forces to a patient & rsquo;s arm as the patient uses the joystick to play Java-based therapy games on the web site. The system can track user movement recovery over time and report it to a remote location, thus providing a means to remotely monitor and facilitate rehabilitation.

 

Design and Components Issues in Medical Lasers

Randall Blair, Staff Scientist, Trimedyne, Inc, Irvine, CA.

Medical lasers face design challenges owing to the mode and wavelength of operation (pulsed, usually near to mid IR), characteristics of laser behavior with time and under various environmental conditions and requirements from regulatory bodies (FDA, EU/IEC, etc.). Many of these design issues result in requirements on components and subsystems which challenge the "practical" state of the art. This talk will survey several typical medical laser systems and the component requirements each imposes. Components which will be addressed are output feedback detectors, pulse power switches and diode lasers. Aspects of control system design will also be discussed

SESSION (PM)

Injectable Microstimulators/Sensors To Restore Paralyzed Functions

Joseph H. Schulman, Ph.D., Vice President, Alfred E. Mann Foundation, Valencia, CA.

Miniature injectable microstimulators and microsensors are being developed by the Alfred E. Mann Foundation, a non profit medical foundation.  The microstimulators are approximately two millimeters in diameter and fifteen millimeters long. They have platinum electrodes at each end, and can be programmed to stimulate tissue over the following ranges: Frequency, 1pps thru 200pps, pulse width: 3 microseconds thru 500 microseconds, and constant current amplitude: 0.2mA thru 20mA. These capacitively coupled stimulators can be placed on or near a nerve or muscle via a special injection tool, or via a surgical cut down in order to cause a specific muscle or part of a muscle to contract. Up to 255 individual microstimulators can be individually addressed and programmed. The powering and programming of this 255 channel stimulating system is performed by a magnetic field generated via an external coil. This system will be available for experimental use in the later half of 2001. Microsensors of the same size capable of detecting biopotentials are also under development, and will become available about a year later.The Alfred E. Mann Foundation is seeking collaboration with biomedical and clinical institutes to jointly develop medical applications using this system.

 

The Correct Touchscreen Technology for Medical Applications

 Frank Shen, Market Manager, Elo TouchSystems, Inc., Fremont, CA .

In the medical field, touchscreens are used as interfaces to help increase the efficiency and accuracy of analytical instruments, sophisticated x-ray and ultrasound machines, and cardiac management systems. In the healthcare arena, touchscreens aid medical professionals in the use of electronic patient records, information systems, lab equipment and other portable devices. The use of touchscreen technology increases the productivity of medical personnel and ensures a higher level of accuracy with minimal training. However, choosing the correct touchscreen technology requires an understanding of each technologies strengths and weaknesses as they relate to medical applications. Specifically, in this session you will learn: 1.A basic understanding of the four most popular touchscreen technologies. 2. The strengths and weaknesses of each technology.3. The best technology for medical applications.

 

Elements of Metabolic Mass Flow Sensing,

Andrew Huszcza, Ph.D., Vacumed, Ventura, CA.

 Due to a complex and varying composition of expired gases and intermittent flow dynamics of breathing, the metabolic mass flow sensing in physiology and medicine had to evolve beyond application of a hot wire techniques. Typical solutions utilize the linear low-resistance flow sensors (e.g., mesh pneumotachometers) or the flow-to-quantums of volume converters, such as turbines, to instantly quantify expired flows and volumes. The resulting information is temporarily stored to await arrival of usually delayed (sample transport) results of a fast-response analysis of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents. Then, the temporal profiles of flow and gas concentration values can be properly aligned to perform cross multiplication that yields the mass flow information. However, the fast-response analyzers are expensive and energy "hungry," which precludes affordability and full portability required in certain field applications (testing of athletes, laborers, etc.). These drawbacks can be greatly obviated by proportional sampling, which uses flow signals of exhalation to control the gas sampling pump. The resulting gas sample is proportional to the volume of breath and represents expired gas concentrations, as if the whole breath was captured, mixed and analyzed. Now, the slower and cheaper gas analyzers can be used, which consume no or much less electric energy. In addition, the computational software becomes trivially simple.

 

Internet Appliances for Medical Applications

Bob Ward and Morton Schwartz, Ph.D., CSULB, Long Beach, CA

This paper will present the design of a system to be used to send and receive real-time electrocardiograph data over the Internet with the potential for transmitting up to eight channels of physiological data. The sending unit (or home based Internet appliance) consists of a front-end amplifier, filter, A/D converter and embedded PC Intel processor. Data will be sent over the Internet in packages according to the format of the Internet-standard Real-time Transfer Protocol (RTP). On the physician’s end, software has been developed to receive the data and then to display it as a continuous, uninterrupted waveform. The system can be used to transmit physiological data from the patient at any location over the Internet to the physician’s PC using the worldwide Internet connectivity. One possible use of the devise could be transmitting EKG data for a cardiac patient who experiences occasional chest pains (or angina.) When conventional methods (treadmill or Holter monitor) have failed to provide the physician with sufficient information, our Internet appliance could be prescribed for an extended period of time. If the patient experiences chest pains he/she would apply the electrodes. The unit would then automatically detect the presence of an EKG signal and if good, connect to the Internet. Data will then be sent to the Physician’s office computer where the EKG data will be displayed. The physician will have the ability to save, edit or printout any portion of the received waveform. Results of an EKG Internet Appliance prototype will be presented.

 

Selected On-Line Resources for Electro-Medical Device Designers

Gabriel Spera, Editor, Medical Device Link, Los Angeles, CA.

Medical electronics are growing ever more sophisticated. Implantable neurostimulators, robotic surgical systems, cochlear implants--these are among the more intriguing technologies making headlines lately. But the increasing sophistication of these devices places additional burdens on manufacturers, who need to assess market readiness, conduct more stringent tests, and educate FDA reviewers who are not well-versed in the technology. This presentation will introduce several Web sites of interest to designers and manufacturers of medical electronics. Featured sites will include Medical Device Link, CE-Mag, and EMI Catalog. These sites can be a great resource for engineers seeking regulatory and compliance information, details about international standards, EMC design tips, market updates, industry news, and vendor sourcing.

 

An Overview of the Patient Vital Signs Monitor

Robert Wagenleitner, Medical Data Electronics, Arleta, CA

A patient vital signs monitor must be considered as a platform in concept that performs integrated multiple systems processing. (1) The patient vital signs monitor must function as an isolated multiparameter signal acquisition device to process data collected from sensors connected to the patient. (2) The patient vital signs monitor must translate each parameter into meaningful data for display, recording, trending and alarm status. Thus an integral feature is to calculate derived values for all data sets for posting and alarm update. (3) The patient vital signs monitor must function as a terminal to up load point of care data that is collected by the clinician while in the patient vicinity via keyboard entry, IR download from another device or barcode reader. (4) The patient vital signs monitor must function as a host server pulling data from other devices connected to the patient via IEEE 1073 MIB (medical interface bus). (5) The patient vital signs monitor must receive and display data captured from other departments. (6) The patient vital signs monitor must send physiologic information to a network central station via Hardwire LAN, 802.11, 2.4 GHz wireless LAN or a medical grade DTT/FSA 900 MHz wireless LAN.

 

Components, Sensors, and Systems in Medical Applications,

Christopher Druzgalski, Ph.D., CSULB, Long Beach, CA

The impediments of medical device design often are created by electrical and/or mechanical limitations of the device’s fundamental components. For instance, since capacitors and batteries set the limits of implantable defibrillators, one-third of the pacemakers are replaced due to limits set by the batteries. Mechanical and electrical components, as well as power requirements, create limitations to the left ventricular assist system. A biosensor’s capabilities define the spectrum and modalities of detected or continuously monitored physiological parameters. A hearing aid device’s performance often is defined by DSP circuitry and magnet strength, allowing physical coupling between internal and external parts of the unit. The component-level technological developments of electronic circuits and systems often determine things such as the transition from a non-invasive to invasive procedure, the capabilities of multipurpose catheters and probes, and the functionality of nerve and spinal cord bridges. This special session assesses the status and needs of component through system-level designs in selected medical applications.

 

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Last revised  "almost daily as needed" in 2000