This Applications Conference, which is a part of Wescon 98, is divided into two sessions: Biotechnology and
Bioengineering - Integrated Design (TS18)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering - Medical Technology Perspective (TS19)
The Vibrant Soundbridge - Implantable Transducer Technology for Hearing Loss, Bob H. Katz, Director R&D, Symphonix Devices, Inc., San Jose, CA.
Silicon Cochlea, Bogdan Kuszta, Caltech, Pasadena, CA.
Silicon Whole Body Sensors for Medical Applications - a glimpse of the future, Suave Lobodzinski, CSULB, Long Beach, CA and Michael Laks, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
Development of Hybrid Microelectronic Circuits for Implantable Pacemakers, Nidal M. Kerdiya, Director, Teledyne Electronic Technologies, Medical Devices Business Unit
Sensor Applications in the Medical Field, Michael Young, General Manager, Advanced Custom Sensors, Inc., Irvine, CA
Bioengineering and Biotechnology - Systems-on-a-Chip/Integrated Design, Christopher Druzgalski, Ph.D., California State University, Long Beach
The Vibrant Sound Bridge - Implantable Transducer Technology for Hearing Loss
Bob H. Katz Symphonix Devices, Inc.
In the United States alone, over 26 million people suffer from some degree of hearing loss. The standard of care for treatment of sensorineural hearing loss has been the acoustic hearing aid, a technology that has been relatively unchanged for the past twenty-five years. The vibrant sound bridge is the first of a new generation of implantable hearing devices intended to provide improved performance for sound amplification, producing more natural sound quality while eliminating occlusion, feedback, and other disadvantages of acoustic amplification. The technology is based on a novel implantable transducer designed to operate in conjunction with the native middle ear structures.
Bogdan Kuszta, Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA
Electronic cochlea designed at Caltech's C. Mead Lab closely mimics the dynamics of the real cochlea. A biological cochlea consists of a coiled, fluid-filled tube with a pair of flexible membranes (windows) that connect the cochlea acoustically to the middle ear cavity. As sounds push on the window, a pressure wave travels down the length of the cochlea with a decreasing speed. Silicon cochlea mimics the dynamics of the real cochlea in terms of frequency distribution along the transmission line. This line consists of several hundred filters with decreasing cutoff frequencies. The distribution of the active length of the delay line corresponds to the distribution of frequencies of the acoustic signal. The silicon cochlea processes sound over six order of magnitude in intensity, while dissipating less than 0.5 mW.
Silicon Whole Body Sensors for Medical Applications - A Glimpse into the Future
Suave Lobodzinski, Ph.D., California State University, Long Beach, and Michael Laks, M.D., Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
Conventional and currently existing electrocardiographic systems are limited in their clinical application due to their use of wet electrodes and lead wires. An opportunity now exists to leverage advances in semiconductor design tools and fabrication to develop a solid-state wireless biopotential transducer that replaces a traditional electrode and lead wire at a reasonable cost. Because of their small size and ease of use, these transducers have application potential in long-term, twelve-lead monitoring equipment and in stress electrocardiography.
Development of Hybrid Microelectronic Circuits for Implantable Pacemakers
Nidal M. Kerdiya Teledyne Electronic Technologies, Medical Devices Business Unit, Torrance, CA
The evolution from a wire wrap (FR4) board to a functional hybrid microcircuit can take a long time, if not properly planned. This presentation discusses a design process that allows a product to move from conception to design to market in sixteen weeks. It is a five-step process involving component selection, mechanical design, thermal analysis, structural analysis, and good old engineering practices honed from thirty-eight years of hybrid circuit design and manufacture experience.
Sensor Applications in the Medical Field
Michael Young Advanced Custom Sensors, Inc., Irvine, CA
Decreases in sensor price and the growing homelier market have paved the way for sensors to find their way into medical applications. Force sensors are used in infusion pump control, surgery instruments, and rehabilitation equipment. Applications for pressure sensors include spirometer, blood pressure, gas delivery, and sterilization equipment. Examples of good sensor designs that include key elements of size, current consumption, and cost are discussed.
Bioengineering and Biotechnology - Systems-on-a-Chip/Integrated Design
Christopher Druzgalski, Ph.D., California State University, Long Beach
Medical technology on a chip encompasses some of the most challenging and technically demanding designs of implantable devices for therapeutic or long-term monitoring functions (implantable drug delivery systems, spinal cord bridges for stimulation/simulation of muscular/sensory functions) multifunction catheters, systems for medical telemetry, and other integrated medical devices such as special purpose sensors. A cardiac pacemaker is a classic example of a medical device that evolved from a discrete components-based design to its present form of an integrated system. Implantable pacemakers are used by more than half a million people worldwide. The engineering design and manufacturing challenges of these devices involve components, embedded systems, reliability and long-term stability, materials, and other factors. The need for sterilization, biocompatibility of materials, cost factors in the light of relatively low production volumes, and FDA regulatory requirements render other distinct engineering demands. The evolution of molecular devices, and for example practical utilization of DNA structure for computer memories, will have profound effect on integrated electronic design in general.
Session: Bioengineering and Biotechnology - Medical Technology Perspective
Chair: Chairperson: Mr. Jack K. Iverson, IEEE - Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, SAC University Liaison
Assessment of Angioplasty, Stenting, and Other Coronary Interventions using Intravascular Ultrasound, Dr. Paul G. Yock, Stanford University Medical Center, School of Medicine.
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery, Mohammad A. Gharavi, MD, FACS, California Center for Cardiothoracic Surgery.
Interdisciplinary approach to development of bimolecular device, Larry Baresi and Willis Downing, California State University, Northridge, CA.
The Interpersonal Significance of a Fork: What Biomedical Engineering Should Do, Dr. Warren S. Brown, Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary.
The 21st Century, an overview of the coming golden years of integrated medicine and engineering, Jackson K. Iverson IEEE/EMBS Universities Liaison.
This session focuses on the linkage of medical and engineering innovations as applied to minimally invasive procedures for the assessment and improvement of cardiac performance. These issues are supplemented with a discussion of ethics and dilemmas facing biomedical professionals. Molecular engineering brings even more technological and ethical challenges including the use of molecular invasive systems to work at the gene and DNA levels, a cellular level intervention, or nano pump/machines. Also, the onset of 21st century medicine brings advanced protocols, new surgical systems and instrumentation, imaging devices, robotic satellite surgery, and bypass electronic jumper circuits for repair of body functions. Military and space developments that have occurred in the past forty years are being made available to medicine at a rapid pace under the technology transfer program. Biotech companies are springing up around our universities and drive new developments in biotechnology. Finally, we must get our youth again interested in medicine, science, and engineering. They are the seed crop of the next century's integrated medicine - a pledge to future generations.
Assessment of Angioplasty, Stenting, and Other Coronary Interventions using Intravascular Ultrasound
Dr. Paul G. Yock, Stanford University Medical Center, School of Medicine
Development of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in the late 1980s allowed the direct inspection of coronary artery disease in living patients. In the past decade IVUS catheters have been miniaturized and refined to the point where they can be used to assess a wide range of coronary interventions. Several major lessons have been learned. Prior to IVUS, restenosis (renarrowing of the artery after treatment) was thought to be due to a buildup of a special scar tissue in the lining of the vessel (intimal hyperplasia). IVUS studies have shown that a localized shrinkage, or negative remodeling, of the entire vessel wall is as important a contributor to restenosis as intimal hyperplasia. The single most powerful predictor of restenosis is the plaque burden (the volume of plaque) at the treatment site. A plaque removal technique which could reliably reduce the plaque burden to below 50% of the vessel cross-section area should have comparable or better restenosis rates compared to stenting. It is extremely difficult to judge the adequacy of stent deployment using angiographic techniques alone. 30-40% of stents that appear fully expanded by angio will have some technical problem when viewed with IVUS. Stent deployment guided by IVUS has been shown to reduce recurrence rates by almost 40%.
Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
Mohammad A. Gharavi, MD, FACS, California Center for Cardiothoracic Surgery
In the early 60s, the concept of coronary artery bypass was introduced to the medical community by several centers. The concept was refined and modified, but the basic foundation did not change until recently. In the last few years, through the efforts of several surgeons from the U.S. and around the world, two techniques for minimally invasive cardiac surgery have been developed. The minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAP) technique involves operating on the beating heart and eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. The heartport technique which eliminates the need for median sternotomy (opening the breastbone) but allows the use of the heart-lung machine, is mainly for valve replacement. Conventional open heart surgery and the newer techniques mentioned above are discussed.
Interdisciplinary Approach to Bimolecular Device Development
Willis G. Downing, Jr., Ph.D., College of Engineering and Computer Science, California State University, Northridge, CA
A seminar incorporating engineering, physics, and biology graduate students was assembled to develop applications for bacteriologically produced single-domain magnetic crystals. The students were presented with technical information on the bacteriological and chemical aspects of the magnetic crystals. This led to an interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and educational process development as well as establishment of potential applications. Some applications discussed and analyzed by the group included high-density magnetic tapes, cellular destruction techniques (cancer, fungi, etc.), selective magnetic barriers (electrical isolation), nano pump/machines, and various micro-magnetic detectors.
The Interpersonal Significance of a Fork: What Biomedical Engineering Should Do
Dr. Warren S. Brown, Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary
What ethic directs what biomedical engineering should be doing? This presentation suggests a positive ethic for ongoing developments in biomedical engineering that is derived from a description of the essence of what it means to be human. Human distinctiveness resides in the capacity for personal relatedness, and human significance, in the experience of relatedness. Thus, what biomedical engineering out to be doing is restoring a person's capacity for deep and significant interpersonal relationships. Particular focus is on developments in the area of rehabilitation from spinal cord injury.
The 21st Century: Overview of Upcoming Golden Years of Integrated Medicine and Engineering
Jack K. Iverson, SAC University Liaison IEEE/EMB
This presentation concentrates on what is happening now and what will most likely take place in the foreseeable future in areas such as computer assisted surgery, bionics, telepresence medicine, devices for the blind and deaf, micro and artificial hearts, defib units, heart valves, pacemakers, cryogenic surgery, microwave intervention, satellite robotic surgery, lasers, infrared, super imaging using atomic weapon imaging techniques, lifelike prosthetics, micro stents, revascularization, CAD/CAM controlled systems, virtual reality surgery, electro-restimulation of nerves (jumper medicine), fractal geometric eye systems, DNA rapid mapping/ transplanting, quantum molecular, dot/ion computing (med informatics) ballistic light, self assembly of replacement body parts (nano atom manipulation), and many more which can just be envisioned. With the power of our universities, biotech companies, and scientists of all disciplines, we will synergize medicine across all boundaries and the golden age of integrated medicine will come to mankind.
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