Geography Conference Abstracts
College of Liberal Arts
1250 Bellflower Boulevard
California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840-1101 USA
Mr. Tom Frazier
- "The para-gated communities of Berlin: A methodical analysis of newly constructed securitized residential development in the newly reconstructed capital city," to the Association of American Geographers meeting in Chicago in March 2006.
- There are no completely walled off residential neighborhoods in Berlin, but there are newly constructed residential developments that exhibit the characteristics of, and function like, Gated Communities. Due to the layers of security built into the urban landscape affecting these residential complexes, they can be identified and classified as a new type of securitized residential development model called the Para-Gated Community. A Para-Gated Community (PGC) can be defined as a residential area or complex that exhibits, or is subject to, many of the security elements of an otherwise planned gated community, but not developed as such. A PGC is comprised of five primary components: 1) A securitized multi-unit residential complex; 2) a site that exhibits defensible and/ or observable space through its shape, building placement, and/ or topographical features; 3) external neighborhood security affecting the residential complex; 4) associated or adjacent privatized and securitized public/private space; and 5) a unique identity within the urban matrix. The components of the Para-Gated Community can be employed as a formula to test a subject property under observation as to whether or not that securitized residential development can be classified as a Para-Gated Community. PGCs can be typologized further according to the external multi- uses and sources of security affecting the residential complex. This paper will explain how to employ the components of the PGC as an identification and classification method using case study examples from Berlin's newly constructed capital city area.
Mr. Frazier also presented:
- "Security habitation in the New Berlin: Landscapes of defensible residential space in Berlin's newly built urban environment," to the Association of American Geographers meeting in Philadelphia in March 2004.
- The urban built environment of the city of Berlin, Germany has undergone a significant transformation in the years since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Berlin's structural changes, primarily to its former capital city function, have attracted a population composed of diplomats and politicians, as well as a cultural and economic elite, with an above average need for security. The influx of a "high security population" has resulted in a market response for high-end residential development with integrated security and service. The security habitation phenomenon is also part of the overall trend towards the securitization of Berlin's public and private developed urban spaces, and is an aspect of the globalization of residential development forms in the post-modern city. The purpose for implementing and employing residential security strategies to defend residential space is in an attempt to safeguard human habitation against (real or perceived) harm or invasion. Included in Berlin's new urbanscape development, are numerous residential projects that have incorporated the concepts of securitized defensible space into their design, placement, construction, and management. The security aspect of Berlin's newly built residential environment can be analyzed in an organized and systematic way by employing a method called the Security Habitation Hierarchy. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is a method for identifying and categorizing the varied forms, devices, and tools of residential security, and is divided into three levels: The protection of one's individual self at the point of habitation; securitization of the housing unit or residential building; and the defensive design, either natural or man-made, of the residential neighborhood or development. The three levels of the Security Habitation Hierarchy method identify, organize, and describe the physical imprint and effects residential security has had on new Berlin's geographic urbanscape.
Mr. Frazier gave:
- "The security habitation hierarchy: Physical manifestation of residential security on Southern California's geographic urbanscape," to the Association of American Geographers meeting in Los Angeles in March 2002.
- This paper attempts to provide an organized and systematic way of looking at the geographic effect of residential security by using a method called the Security Habitation Hierarchy. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is a method for identifying and categorizing the physical imprint, on the urban landscape, made by the varied forms, devices, and tools of residential security. The implementation and use of residential security employ numerous devices in the attempt to safeguard human habitation against harm or invasion. In Southern California residential security can be viewed almost as a lifestyle, and provides the paper with many examples for securing an abode, from window bars to gated communities. The Security Habitation Hierarchy is divided into three levels: The protection of one's individual self at the point of habitation; securitization of the housing unit or residential building; and the defensive design, either natural or man-made, of the residential neighborhood or development. The first level, the basic protection of one's self, is primarily a behavioral aspect of security habitation, but has a definite physical effect. The second level is the securitization of a housing unit or residential building utilizing site and building design, with access to entry the major focus. The third level of the hierarchy recognizes the impact of street and site design, as well as the local geography and topography directly affecting safety and accessibility. The three levels of the Security Habitation Hierarchy identify, organize, and describe the physical effect residential security has on the geography of the urban landscape.
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