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California State University, Long Beach
Department of Criminal Justice

Recent Books

Judy Hails

Cover of Dr. Hails' Book in Criminal EvidenceHighly accessible and engaging, the sixth edition of Dr. Judy Hails's book Criminal Evidence was published in early 2008 by Wadsworth/Cengage. The book provides comprehensive coverage of all evidentiary topics common in criminal proceedings in a brief, reader-friendly paperback format that is uniquely affordable and manageable. The text thoroughly explores constitutional issues essential to the collection and seizure of admissible evidence and legal interrogation, carefully outlining concepts and processes applicable to every state and pointing out where great interstate variation exists or specific state codes may have a strong impact. Full of realistic case scenarios, the text maintains a strong practical focus to prepare students to apply their knowledge and skills in the real world as working law enforcement professionals. The newest is more practical and applied than ever, with new real-world case scenarios to open each chapter and vividly illustrate key concept(s), activities throughout the text to help students apply learning in a realistic context, and writing assignments in every chapter based on relevant and compelling real-life cases. It also includes abundant new material on important current trends and topics such as terrorism and homeland security, scientific evidence, Federal Rules of Evidence, hearsay, the appellate system, and other key areas students will likely encounter as they begin or continue their careers a professional law enforcement officials.

Connie Ireland

Cover of Dr. Hails' Book in Criminal EvidenceThis student-friendly text provides a comprehensive and unique view into the world of women interacting with the criminal justice system. Authors Stacy L. Mallicoat and Connie Ireland explore key topics on women as victims, offenders, and criminal justice workers as they interact with various areas in criminal justice. They investigate relevant subjects that are not found in many traditional texts, including women who work as victim advocates, and international issues of crime and justice for women. They highlight important discussions such as rape in the military or the Girls Scouts Beyond Bars program, and offer case studies on well-known offenders such as Mary Kay Letourneau and Andrea Yates. The text also provides a unique vignette on the story of Karla and Diana, two childhood friends whose lives take a dramatic turn throughout different aspects of the criminal justice system. This vignette, a composite of many subjects and case studies from the authors' research and field experiences, highlights many of the major concepts for each chapter.


Cover of Dr. Tracy Tolbert's Book on Sex CrimesIn 2010, Dr. Ireland took over the researching and writing of The Dictionary of Criminal Justice, a project originally begun years ago by former CSULB Professor George Rush. The new 7th edition brings together in one, easy-to-use guide more than 3,600 definitions from the many disciplines that compose the field of criminal justice— including U.S. and English common law, penology, psychology, law enforcement, political science, and business administration. The volume also features summaries of nearly 1,000 key U.S. Supreme Court rulings affecting criminal justice, an appendix of juried academic journals, and a new appendix compilation of websites in the field.


Cover of Dr. Hails' Book in Criminal EvidencePrior to his passing, CSULB Professor Dr. Bruce L. Berg co-authored two editions of Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Practice and Applications with his colleague and friend, Dr. Robert J. Mutchnick. Keeping our late colleague's vision alive, Dr. Connie Ireland revised and expanded the text into its third edition. The new edition focuses on how social scientific research methods are used within all areas of criminal justice. This text combines a traditional research textbook with exercises that allow students to experience research in a controlled environment. It is a stand-alone text for use in introductory courses and can also be used as a companion methods manual for use with most traditional social scientific research textbooks. This text offers readers basic information about methodological concerns through the use of brief readings and a variety of practice exercises relating to those readings. Published in 2009, the new edition of this book is available through Pearson/Prentice Hall.


Dina Perrone

Cover of Dr. Hails' Book in Criminal EvidenceA study of New York City drug users (ages 22-33) who self-identify as (dance) “club kids” challenges stereotypes of the typical drug user and common assumptions about controlling drug-related harms. Ethnographic research illuminates the club kids’ distinctive subculture, describes their patterns of drug use, and explores the factors that protect them from harms such as arrests and illness. Richly detailed and remarkably candid interview data vividly portray how the subjects manage to maintain productive, middle-class lifestyles despite engaging in heavy drug use.

Dr. Perrone situates the club kids in a historical perspective as a subculture with distinctive rituals, styles, tastes and cultural norms. The emergence of club kid culture and the clubbing experience are in conformity with current worldwide trends in consumption, commercialization and globalization.

The data indicate that the club kids’ strive to protect themselves from harms by their choices among drugs, the settings where they use drugs, and their mindsets during use. Also facilitating controlled drug use are the subjects’ high levels of economic and social capital, ample life and job skills (human capital), extensive social networks, and maturation through the typical life-course of educated middle class Americans.

The threat of criminal justice sanctions was not a significant factor in the club kids’ moderation in drug use, efforts at harm avoidance, or eventual desistance. Instead, the club kids’ cultural norms and socio-economic statuses were the predominant influences on their drug use and experiences. Implications for national drug policy are assessed.

Tracy Tolbert

Cover of Dr. Tracy Tolbert's Book on Sex CrimesPublished in 2006 by Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., The Sex Crimes Scenario is Tolbert’s first book. The qualitative, empirical study is based on more than four years of face-to-face interviews with 20 women of varying social and demographic backgrounds. The common theme between them is that all had experienced some form of sexual assault during the course of their lives. “I wanted to understand the facilitators and barriers affecting the way women report sex crimes,” said Tolbert, a Long Beach resident who joined the university in 1997. The Sex Crimes Scenario is a theoretical model that provides a way to answer some of the questions inherent to the paradox. Despite the belief that rape, domestic violence, incest, and a range of criminal activity involving sexual assault, are anomalous occurrences, sex crimes such as domestic violence do not occur within a vacuum. Rather, they are produced within the context of a scenario which constitutes a series of events, situations and circumstances that come together in time and space to form relationships where sex crimes are committed on a regular basis. She hopes that readers come away from her book with a deeper understanding of the significance of sex crimes. “They exist and they’re not going away,” she said. “The numbers of sex crimes occurring today are increasing, while the numbers of women reporting them are decreasing. It seems counter-intuitive but it’s true. Despite all the advances women have made in the last 30 years, it appears there are still silent forces operating in our society designed to thwart any attempt for women to find encouragement and support in these situations.”

Brenda Vogel

Cover of Dr. Tracy Tolbert's Book on Sex CrimesPublished in 2010 by Cengage, this book offers a comprehensive survey of the major criminological and delinquency theories, including their philosophical foundations, policy implications, empirical support, and criticisms.

Dr. Vogel and her colleague Dr. Robert Bohm provide a concise overview of a range of crime and delinquency theories. Begins by discussing the philosophical assumptions on which all theories are based and how the different theories can be judged in relation to each other, then describes each theory, identifies its policy implications, and critiques each theory. This edition contains new study questions, and expanded discussion of biocriminology, race-IQ-crime theory, and anomie theory.

John Wang

Cover of Dr. John Wang's Book on Asian GangsPublished in English in June 2007 by the Press of China Public Security University, Asia Organized Crime and Gangs in the US is considered the first book on such a topic. Published in hard and soft cover, Asian Organized Crime features 13 articles written by Wang for various refereed journals in the U.S. from 1993-2005. The 13 articles cover a variety of subjects ranging from Triads, Asian gang affiliation patterns, bank robbery, and illegal immigration to Laotian/Hmong gangs. Wang demonstrates his application of 10 research approaches such as trend study, contextual study, survey (quantitative analysis), interview (qualitative analysis), theory testing, theory and policy construction, modus operandi analysis, content analysis, cases study, and field work.  In the appendix section, Wang provides a list of journals, abstract, indexes and online Web sites on criminal justice and criminology by category and alphabetic order. Wang argues the increase of transnational crime is related to the growth of electronic and digital technology, the lag time between crime and the laws, and the rise of international business. “Today’s Asian criminals have moved from street crimes to high tech crimes,” he said. “The technology like Internet, cyberspace, laser printer, and international telephone cards is readily available. Plus, we need to improve our laws and plug the loopholes. The law needs to catch up with criminals before it can catch them.” Further, the growing number of international travelers has made more and more people into citizens of the world, Wang believes. “There are big language and cultural barriers to overcome as part of transnational business and that relates to transnational crime as well,” he said. “The solution to fighting against such crimes effectively is a better understanding of both sides of our world. A transnational crime task force could be formed between the East and the West to make that fight more effective in the future.”

Recent Articles and Book Chapters

  • Barratt, M. J., Bouchard, M., Decorte, T., Frank, V., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S.,  Malm, A. E.  Nguyen, H., & Potter, G. (2012). Understanding global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12(4), 213-221.

  • Béchard, S., Ireland, C., Berg, B., & Vogel, B. (2011). Arbitrary arbitration: Diverting juveniles into the justice system: A Reexamination after twenty-two years. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 55(4), 605-625. doi: 10.1177/0306624X10363265.

  • Bichler, G. and Malm, A.E. (In press). Magnetic facilities: Identifying convergence settings of juvenile delinquents. Crime and Delinquency. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0011128710382349.

  • Bichler, G. & Malm, A.E. (2013). Small arms, big guns: A dynamic model of illicit market opportunity. Global Crime, 14(3), 261-286. doi: 10.1080/17440572.2013.787928

  • Bichler, G. Hauck, S., & Malm, A.E. (2013). Bad actors and illicit props: Scripting the system of illicit trade in fine art. Global Crime, 14(4), 359-385.

  • Bichler, G., & Malm, A. E. (2008). A social network analysis of the environmental criminology and crime analysis (ECCA) meetings. Crime Patterns andAnalysis, 1(1), 5-22. Available online

  • Bichler, G., Malm, A. E., and Christie-Merall, J. (2010). Urban backcloth and regional mobility patterns as indicators of juvenile crime. In M. Andresen and J. B. Kinney (Eds.), Environmental criminology: Essays in tribute of the Brantinghams (Crime Prevention Studies, Vol. 25). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

  • Boyd, N., Mitchell, J., & Malm, A.E. (2009). Responding to aggression in long-term care: Lessons from five case studies. Journal of Healthcare Protection Management, 25(1), 90-123.

  • Brar, G.K., & Schug, R.A. (In press). Schizophrenia and crime. In J. M. Miller (Ed.), Encyclopedia of theoretical criminology. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Deschenes, E.P., Ireland, C., & Kleinpeter, C. (2009). Enhancing drug court success. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 48, 1-18. doi: 10.1080/10509670802577473

  • Fischer, R.G.   (2011).  Criminal Justice research tactics as examples for ethical business practices when working with vulnerable populations.  International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2, 133-135.   Available online

  • Fischer, R.G., Fradella, H.F., & Ireland, C. (2009). Sex, violence, and the boundaries of the defense of consent. Criminal Law Bulletin, 45(6), 1137-1155.
  • Fischer, R.G. (2005).  Are California’s recidivism rates really the highest in the nation?  It depends on what measure of recidivism you use.  UC Irvine Center for Evidence-Based Corrections Bulletin, 1(1), 1-4. Available online

  • Fong, R.S., Vogel, B.L., & Vogel, R.E (2008). The correlates of school violence: An examination of factors linked to assaultive behavior in a rural middle school with a large migrant population.” The Journal of School Violence, 7(3), 24-47. doi:10.1080/15388220801955521

  • Galeste, M. A., Fradella, H. F., & Vogel, B. L. (In press). Sex offender myths in print media: Separating fact from fiction in U.S. newspapers. Western Criminology Review,13(2), 4-24. Available online

  • Galeste, M. A., Munoz-Duran, S., & Ireland, C. E. (2013).  Residential substance abuse aftercare treatment: A multisite examination of structure, goals, and staff.  Justice Policy Journal, 10(1), 1-31.  Available online at

  • Glenn, A.L., Raine, A., & Schug, R.A. (2009). The neural correlates of moral decisionmaking in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 5-6. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.104

  • Glenn, A.L., Raine, A., & Schug, R.A., Young, L., & Hauser, M. (2009). Increased DLPFC activity during moral decision-making in psychopathy. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 909-911. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.76

  • Gao, Y., Raine, A., & Schug, R.A. (2012). Somatic aphasia: Mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy. Biological Psychiatry, 90, 228-233.

  • Ireland, C. (2008). Evidence-based practices in sentencing, corrections, and parole: Policies and practices to reduce recidivism. Criminal Law Bulletin, 44(4), 627-638.

  • Ireland, C. (2007).  Parolee day treatment in California: Action research with parolees in an urban setting. Justice Policy Journal, 4(2),1-35. Available online

  • Ireland, C., & Berg, B.L. (2008). Women in parole: Respect and rapport. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 52(4), 474-491. doi: 10.1177/0306624X07307782

  • Kleinpeter, C., Brocato, J., Fischer, R.G., & Ireland, C. (2009). Specialty groups for drug court participants. Journal of Groups in Addiction & Recovery, 4(4), 265-287. doi:10.1080/15560350903340486

  • Librett, M., & Perrone, D. (2010). Apples and oranges: Ethnography and the IRB. Qualitative Inquiry, 10(6), 729-747. doi: 10.1177/1468794110380548.

  • Malm, A.E., & Bichler, G. (In press). Introduction to the thematic issue on illicit networks. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, ___, ___-___.

  • Malm, A.E., & Bichler, G. (2013). Using friends for money: The positional importance of money launderers in the drug market. Trends in Organized Crime, 16(4), 365-381.

  • Malm, A.E., & Bichler, G. (2011). Networks of Collaborating Criminals: Assessing the structural vulnerability of drug markets. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48(2), 271-297. doi:10.1177/00224278103915.

  • Malm, A.E., Bichler, G. and Nash, R. (2011). Co-offending between criminal enterprise groups. Global Crime, 12(2), 112-128.

  • Malm, A.E., Bichler, G., and Van De Walle, S. (2010). Comparing the ties that bind criminal networks: Is blood thicker than water? Security Journal, 23(1), 52-74. doi:10.1057/sj.2009.18

  • Malm, A.E., Kinney, J.B., & Pollard, N.R. (2008). Social network and distance correlates of criminal associates involved in illicit drug production. Security Journal, 21(1), 77-94.

  • Malm, A.E., Nash, R., & Vickovic, S. (2011). Co-offending in cannabis cultivation. In M. Bouchard, G. Potter, & T. DeCorte (Eds.), World Wide Weed (pp. 127-144). Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing.

  • Malm, A.E., Pollard, N.R., Brantingham, P.J., Plecas, D.B., Brantingham, P.L., & Kinney, J.B. (2007). Utilizing activity-based timing to analyze police service delivery. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, July, 1-20.

  • Malm, A.E., Schoepfer, A., Bichler, G., & Boyd, N. (In press). Pushing the Ponzi: The rise and fall of a network fraud. Global Crime, 13, ___-___.

  • Malm, A.E., Pollard, N., Brantingham, P., Tinsley, P., Plecas, D., Cohen, I., & Kinney, B. (2006). A 30 year analysis of police service delivery and costing in British Columbia: Research Summary. The Thin Blue Line, 5(1), 9-15.

  • Malm, A.E., & Tita, G.E. (2006). A spatial analysis of green teams: A tactical response to marijuana production in British Columbia. Policy Sciences, 39(4), 361-377.

  • Nash, R., Bouchard, M., & Malm, A.E. (2013). Investing in people: The role of social networks in the diffusion of a large-scale fraud. Social Networks, 35,(4), 686-698.

  • Nguyen, H., Malm, A.E., & Bouchard, M. (In press). Restrictive deterrence and intensity of involvement in cannabis cultivation. International Journal of Drug Policy___, ___-___.

  • Perrone, D. (2010). Gender and sexuality in the field: A female ethnographer’s experience researching drug use in dance clubs. Substance Use & Misuse, 45(5), 717-735. doi:10.3109/1082608100359512
  • Schug, R.A. (2011). Schizophrenia and matricide: An integrative review. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 27(2), 204-229.

  • Schug, R.A., & Raine, A. (2009). Comparative meta-analyses of neuropsychological functioning in antisocial schizophrenic persons. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 230-242. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.004

  • Schug, R.A., Raine, A., & Wilcox, R.R. (2007). Psychophysiological and behavioural characteristics of individuals with both antisocial personality disorder and schizophreniaspectrum
    personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 408-414. Available online

  • Schug, R. A., Yang, Y., Raine, A., Han, C., & Liu, J. (2010). Structural and psychosocial correlates of birth order anomalies in schizophrenia and homicide. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198(12), 870-875. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181fe7280

  • Scott-Hayward, C. (2014). Shadow sentencing. Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, 18(2), 180-230.

  • Scott-Hayward, C. (2011). The failure of parole:Rethinking the role of the state in reentry. New Mexico Law Review, 41(2), 421-465.

  • Stainbrook, M.G. (2010). Policing with Muslim communities in the age of terrorism. The Police Chief , 77, 32-40. Available online
  • Tolbert, T.F. (2009). The history of victimology: The 1940s. In J.K. Wilson (Ed.) The Praeger handbook of victimology. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

  • Tolbert, T.F. (2009). Larceny theft. In J.K. Wilson (Ed.) The Praeger handbook of victimology. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

  • Tosouni, A., & Ireland, C. (2008).  Shaming youthful offenders:  An empirical test of reintegrative shaming theory. International Journal of Restorative Justice, 4(2), 53-79. Available online

  • Vickovic, S.G., & Fradella, H.F. (2011). Media depictions of medical marijuana. Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice, 8(1), 67-96.

  • Vickovic, S.G., Griffin, M.L., & Fradella, H.F. (2013).  Depictions of correctional officers in newspaper media: An ethnographic content analysis.  Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law, and Society, 26(4), 455-477.

  • Vogel, B.L., & Fradella, H.F. (2012). There ought to be a law, but not for me: Hypocritical disjunctures between legal and moral belief and low-consensus immoral behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 8(2), 87-110. Available online at

  • Vogel, B.L. (2011). Perceptions of the police: The influence of individual and contextual factors in a racially diverse, urban sample. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice,9(4), 267-290.

  • Wang, Z. (2004). Eastern Turkistan Islamic movement: A case study of a new terrorist organization in China.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(5), 568-584. doi: 10.1177/0306624X03255803

  • Yang, Y., Raine, A., Han, C.B., Schug, R.A., Toga, A.W., & Narr, K.K. (2010). Reduced hippocampal and parahippocampal volumes in murderers with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 182, 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.10.013

  • Yang, Y., Raine, A., Joshi, A.A., Joshi, S., Chang, Y.T., Schug, R.A., Wheland, D., Leahy, R., & Narr, K.L. (In press). Disturbed frontal information flow and connectivity in psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry, ___, ___-___.