is recommended to use condoms during each sexual
encounter, as it is highly effective in preventing
pregnancy as well as STDs. The latex condom offers
better protection against STDs than any other birth
control method. It blocks the exchange of body
fluids that may be infected.
female condom is the same type of contraceptive
device as the male condom, except that it fits
inside of the vagina with an inner ring over the
cervix and an outer ring over the vulva. This keeps
the condom from being pushed up into the vagina, and
puts a protective covering over the outside of
the vagina, preventing sperm from contacting the
are inserted in the vagina before intercourse
and act by blocking the cervix and killing the
sperm. The various types of spermicides include
foams, creams, jellies, suppositories and foaming
tablets and all are available from a drugstore
without a prescription. Foam is considered to be the
most effective of these preparations.
must be inserted just before each act of
intercourse. For extra protection, they may be used
in combination with a condom, a diaphragm or a
& Cervical Cap
cervical cap and diaphragm are both flexible rubber
barriers used with spermicidal cream or jelly. The
barrier and spermicide block and kill sperm moving
toward the uterus. The diaphragm or cap is placed in
the vagina to cover the cervix and is inserted
before intercourse. However, the cap can be left in
place longer and additional contraceptive cream or
jelly is not needed for repeated intercourse during
that time. Cervical cap is a small cap made of soft
rubber. The woman puts spermicide (which kills
sperm) into the cap and then places it up into her
vagina and onto her cervix (the opening of the
uterus or womb.) Suction keeps the cap in place so
sperm cannot enter the uterus.
control pills are a series of pills taken three out
of four weeks. It contains synthetic hormones,
estrogen and progesterone, which are similar to
those normally produced by a woman. It
suppresses ovulation (the release of an egg from the
ovary). It also creates a thick mucous
in the cervix and a thin endometrium (lining in
tissue of the uterus) which interfere with sperm
motility and implantation.
progesterone "shot", is given every three
months. The dosage is like the combined birth
control pill and it suppresses ovulation
(release of egg from the ovary). It also creates a
thick mucous in the cervix and a thin endometrium
(lining tissue of the uterus) which interfere with
sperm motility and implantation.
to protect yourself:
Chlamydia is transmitted during sexual intercourse
here are some tips for Chlamydia prevention:
prevent complications of untreated Chlamydia
infections, including infertility and tubule
pregnancy, sexually active women at risk for
Chlamydia should have a routine Pap smear with a
Chlamydia test every year.
to the Center of Disease Control an estimated 4
million annual cases of chlamydia among adolescents
and adults initiate each year. Up to 85 percent of
women and 40 percent of men with chlamydia are don't
have any symptoms. If left untreated in women,
infections can progress to the upper reproductive
tract and may result in serious complications. In
women, the infection usually begins in the cervix
and can spread to fallopian tubes or ovaries.
It may also cause PID, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease,
which causes scarring and blockage of the fallopian
tubes. This causes sterility and the inability
for a women to get pregnant. In such cases,
fertilized eggs may not reach the uterus because of
tubal blockage, causing ectopic pregnancy, the
fertilization of eggs and development in the tubes.
Sterility in men can also be a problem as well, with
more than 250,000 cases are diagnosed annually. This
condition is called epididiymitus, which happens
when chlamydia spreads from the urethra to the
testicles. When symptoms do occur they may
occur in as little as 5 -10 days after infection.
symptoms that women may experience are:
Warts are caused by the types of sexually
transmitted Human Papillomavirus (HPV).
Approximately 60 varieties of human papillomavirus
are known. Most genital HPV infections do not cause
warts and are asymptomatic, they don't have any
symptoms. Genital HPV is transmitted through
vaginal, anal or oral sexual contact with an
infected person. It is passed through skin contact,
through any open tears and abrasions during sexual
activity and may also be passed through contact with
bodily fluids. Those who are exposed to the virus
will not always develop genital warts, in fact,
there is a 60 percent to 90 percent chance that
his/her sexual partner is possibly infected with the
virus. Genital warts are similar to other viruses
that remain in your system if you are infected. It
does not necessarily confer immunity to infections
with different strains of HPV.
Genital Warts can be seen and felt in the outer
genitalia, but can grow inside the anus, vagina,
urethra, and cervix, or throat making detection more
difficult. They are usually small, soft,
flesh-colored (pink or brown), cauliflower-like
growths that may be found by themselves or in
clusters. They are usually painless, but can be
associated with itching and irritation.
unusual growths, bumps, skin changes on or near
your penis, vagina, vulva, or anus are noticed
unusual itching, pain, bleeding in/around the
genital area occurs
partner has genital warts
is caused by the gonococcus, a bacterium that grows
and multiplies quickly in moist, warm areas of the
body such as the cervix, urethra, mouth, or rectum.
These bacteria can be passed from person to person
during sexual activity (vaginal, oral, and anal
intercourse) leading to infections of the cervix,
vagina, and urethra. If untreated, these
"lower" gonorrhea infections can spread to
higher portions of the reproductive tract, causing
prostatitis (prostate inflammation) and
epididymo-orchitis (inflammation of the epididymis
and testes) in men, and pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID) in women.
early symptoms of gonorrhea often are mild, and most
women who are infected have no symptoms of the
disease. If symptoms of gonorrhea develop, they
usually appear within 2 to 10 days after sexual
contact with an infected partner, although a small
percentage of patients may be infected for several
months without showing symptoms.
from the urethra
of the urethra
sensation during urination
advanced progression PID may develop,
including abdominal pain, bleeding between
menstrual period, vomiting, & fever
or "burning" during urination
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was originally recognized as
the source of hepatitis caused by contaminated blood
transfusions, however, exposure to any body fluids
-- especially semen and saliva -- can transmit the
virus. In the U.S., HBV is typically spread during
intimate sexual activity, as well as through needle
sharing among intravenous drug users.
infection can cause a silent infection with no
symptoms, or it can result in acute hepatitis or
chronic hepatitis. In addition, some people can
become chronic "carriers" of HBV without
ever developing hepatitis. This latter group, which
includes over 200 million people worldwide, does not
have signs and symptoms of hepatitis.
However, they serve as walking reservoirs of
hepatitis infection and can pass HBV to others.
stage of Hepatitis (acute)
Stage of Hepatitis (chronic)
of lymph nodes "swollen glands"
and or fever
of eyes and skin (jaundice)
symptoms may include:
and bloody stool
of Sexual Transmission of HBV
programs are expected to have a significant effect
on the incidence of HBV infection in the next
decade. Because those young people who are immunized
now will be protected from HBV infection during
adolescent and young adulthood, a period when sexual
activity is likely occurred.
prevention education programs that emphasize the
reduction of high risk behaviors and promote the
consistent use of condoms, may be beneficial in
preventing the spread of HBV.
sexually transmitted or congenital infection caused
by the bacterium Treponema pallidum which penetrated
broken skin or mucous membranes. Transmission is
most often caused by sexual contact. It can also be
transferred to the fetus via placenta after the 10th
week of pregnancy
Occurs in three stages:
the primary stage, painless sores, called
chancres, appear 10 days to six weeks after
exposure which can disappear on their own.
secondary stage, begins a week to 6 months after
the primary stage. A skin rash is the hallmark
of this stage and lesions may appear again. The
lesions are very infectious in this stage.
tertiary phase or latent phase follows during
which no symptoms are present, but can be found
by blood tests.
(of untreated syphilis)
sores on genital, rectum, mouth, or fingers
lymph nodes in the area containing the sores
heals in 4 - 8 weeks
rash, diffuse including palms and sores
lymph node enlargement
patches (painless silvery ulcerations of
and pains in bones
stage persisting for a year
symptoms (Tertiary stage)
tumors of skin, bones, or liver
syphilis, which affects the aorta causing
aneurysms or valve disease
nervous system disorders
symptoms that may be associated with this disease:
rash or sores on palms and soles
bleeding between periods
difficulty (swollen lymph nodes)
range of motion (aching of muscles and
gonorrhea is not treated, the bacteria can spread to
the bloodstream and infect the joints, heart valves,
or the brain. The most common consequence of
gonorrhea, however, is PID, a serious infection of
the female reproductive organs, that occurs in an
estimated 1 million American women each year. PID
can scar or damage cells lining the fallopian tubes,
resulting in infertility in as many as 10 percent of
women affected. In others, the damage prevents the
proper passage of the fertilized egg into the
uterus. If this happens, the egg may implant in the
tube; this is called an ectopic or tubal pregnancy
and is life-threatening to the mother if not
infected woman who is pregnant may give the
infection to her infant as the baby passes through
the birth canal during delivery. Most states require
that the eyes of newborns be treated with silver
nitrate or other medication immediately after birth
to prevent gonococcal infection of the eyes, which
can lead to blindness. Because of the risk of
gonococcal infection to both mother and child,
doctors recommend that a pregnant woman have at
least one test for gonorrhea during her pregnancy.
transmitted diseases affect more than 12 million
men and women in the United States each
year. Many are teenagers of young adults.
drugs or alcohol increases your chances of
getting STD's because these substances can
interfere with your judgment and your ability to
use a condom properly.
more sexual partners you have, the higher your
chance of being exposed to HIV or other STD's.
This is because it is difficult to know whether
a person is infected, or has had sex with people
who are more likely to be infected due to
intravenous drug use or other risk factors.
early in the infection, there may be no
symptoms, or symptoms may be easily confused
with other illnesses
transmitted diseases include HIV, chancroid,
chlamydial infections, trichomoniasis, genital
herpes, pubic lice, genital warts, gonorrhea,
lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, viral
hepatitis, scabies, candidiasis, molluscum
contagiosum and others.
lessen the chance of being infected with AIDS or
other STD's, people who take part in risky
sexual behavior should always use a condom.
of a condom is also important for an uninfected
pregnant woman because it can help protect her
and her unborn child from STD's.
only sure way to prevent STDs is to avoid contact between
the penis, vagina, mouth, and anus. You can touch,
cuddle, massage, or tell each other your
fantasies. In general, using your hands to
give pleasure is safe.
a condom from start to finish every time you have
sex. Female condoms and male condoms are now
available. For extra protection, use a spermicidal
jelly or foam during vaginal sex. Use it with
condoms, not in place of them.
condoms on hand and be ready to use them. Be
aware that people often don't make good decisions in
the heat of the moment esp. if they are under the
influence of alcohol or drugs.
the Number of Partners
more people you have sex with, the greater your risk
of getting an STD. If your partner has sex with
others, you are also at risk.
you think you have an STD, go to your health care
provider or clinic right away. Ask your
partner to get tested too, so you won't pass a
disease back and forth. If you have sex, get a check
up at least once a year.
for Disease Control & Prevention www.cdc.gov/od/owh/whstd.htm
College Health Association online www.acha.org
a Contraceptive" http://www.emory.edu/WHSC/MED/FAMPLAN/choices.html